Monday, March 12, 2012

Seven Languages in Seven Weeks - Io Day 2 Self-Study

Here's the next self-study section about the Io programming language. These are several exercises to get some practice.

A Fibonacci sequence starts with two 1s. Each subsequent number is the sum of the two numbers that came before; 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, and so on. Write a program to get the nth Fibonacci number. fib(1) is 1, and fib(4) is 3. As a bonus, solve the problem with recursion and with loops

The recursive approach (very concise):
fib := method(n,  if (n <= 2, 1, fib(n-1) + fib(n-2)))
And with a loop:
fib := method(n,
  p := 1;
  q := 1;
  sum := 1;
  for (i, 3, n,
    sum := p + q;
    p := q;
    q := sum
  );
  sum
)
How would you change / to return 0 if the denominator is zero?
Number div := Number getSlot("/")
Number / := method(n, if (n == 0, 0, self div(n))
Write a program to add up all of the numbers in a two-dimensional array.
a := list(list(1, 2, 3, 4), list(5, 6, 7, 8))
s := 0
a foreach(sublist, s := s + sublist sum)
Or more concise:
a flatten sum
Add a slot called myAverage to a list that computes the average of all the numbers in a list. What happens if there are no numbers in a list? (Bonus: Raise an Io exception if any item in the list is not a number.)
List myAverage := method(self sum / self size)
And with exception handling:
List myAverage := method(
  sum := 0;
  self foreach(e,
    (e isKindOf(Number)) ifFalse(Exception raise("not a number"));
    sum := sum + e
  );
   sum / self size
)
Write a prototype for a two-dimensional list. The dim(x, y) method should allocate a list of y lists that are x elements long. set(x, y, value) should set the value, and get(x, y) should return that value
List2d := Object clone

List2d dim := method(x, y,
  self rows := List clone;
  for (i, 1, x,
    cols := List clone;
    for (j, 1, y,
      cols append(nil)
    );
    self rows append(cols)
  );
  self
)

List2d set := method(x, y, value, 
  self rows at(x) atPut(y, value);
  self
)

List2d get := method(x, y, 
  self rows at(x) at(y)
)
Bonus: write a transpose method so that (new_matrix get(y, x)) == matrix get(x, y) on the original list.
List2d transpose := method(
  transposed := List2d clone;
  transposed dim(self rows at(0) size, self rows size);
  self rows foreach(i, row, 
    row foreach(j, elem,
      transposed set(j, i, elem)
    );
  );
  transposed;
)
Write the matrix to a file, and read a matrix from a file
List2d toFile := method(filename,
  file := File clone open(filename);
  self rows foreach(col, 
    col foreach (elem,
      file write(elem asString, " ")
    );
    file write("\n")
  );
  file flush close;
  file
)

List2d fromFile := method(filename,
  self rows := List clone;
  file := File clone open(filename);
  file readLines foreach(line,
    cols := line split;
    self rows append(cols)
  );
  self
)
Write a program that gives you ten tries to guess a random number from 1--100. If you would like, give a hint of "hotter" or "colder" after the first guess.
secretNum := Random value(100) floor() + 1
in := File standardInput
for (i, 1, 10,
  write("Guess number (try #", i, "): ");
  guess := in readLine asNumber;
  if (guess == secretNum, write("Win!"); break);
  if (i > 1, 
    if ((secretNum - guess) abs < (secretNum - previousGuess) abs,
      write("hotter\n"),
      write("cooler\n")
    )
  );
  previousGuess := guess;
)